Friday, March 30, 2007

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MODERNISASI
 
Berikut ini adalah interpretasi pribadi saya yang tercipta dan ter-' tangkap' sekilas setelah setengah mati saya membaca tulisan sosiolog Iran,-- siapa lagi bila bukan .....Mr. Ali Syari'ati. Menurut Syari'ati, semenjak renaisans dan revolusi industri, jelas sudah arah nahkoda peradaban Eropa adalah ke modernisasi dan konsumsi. Dalam penekanan buah pikirnya di naskah 'Peradaban dan Modernisasi', Syari'ati menjelaskan bahwa pangkal muasalnya adalah didewakannya mesin produksi, dimana semenjak revolusi industri terus - menerus dipacu produktivitasnya. Mesin produksi --pabrik-- dituntut untuk selalu berproduksi hari ini lebih banyak daripada kemarin. Sebetulnya ini adalah hal lumrah. Dalam hitungan teknik, hal ini biasa disebut dengan peningkatan unjuk-kerja. Dan hal ini adalah sah - sah saja. Efektifitas mesin produksi haruslah diukur dari skala produktivitas.
 
Yang jadi perkara adalah ketika pasar di Eropa sudah jenuh. Inilah yang di-'perkara'-kan oleh Syari'ati. Ya bagaimana lagi ? Mesin-mesin  ini terus saja mencetak produk - produknya makin banyak sahaja. Sementara untuk menyerap produk itu maka daya beli masyarakat didongkrak, daya konsumtif masyarakat ditingkatkan, ...tetapi tetap saja produksi lebih banyak dan lebih banyak. Dan ketika pasar Eropa sudah mbludak oleh barang - barang, maka direncanakanlah proyek lintas benua ekspansi penjualan. Mungkin hal ini mirip ekspansi di era penakluk-an. Cuma bedanya di era penakluk-an para saudagar dan tentara Eropa yang dipelopori Portugis, Spanyol, dan Inggris melakukan pendekatan Gold & Glory, ...dan kali ini mereka melakukan pendekatan dengan semboyan 'modernisasi'.
 
Yang dimaksud Syari'ati dengan modernisasi di sini adalah suatu aktivitas untuk mengubah masyarakat non-Eropa agar berlaku seperti orang Eropa, agar mereka menjadi konsumtif seperti masyarakat Eropa, dan lantas mereka membeli barang - barang produksi Eropa. Hal ini menyentuh hingga tingkat kultur / budaya. Yang jadi santapan empuk adalah para mahasiswa dari Asia dan Afrika yang sekolah di Eropa, mereka terendam dengan kampanye 'westernisasi' ini, mereka diusahakan meninggalkan tatakrama, pakaian, dan bahasa asal mereka...Mereka diubah agar berlaku, berpakaian, dan berbahasa seperti orang Eropa. Seakan gayung bersambut dengan pikiran Syari'ati --tokoh kulit hitam Franz Fanon  juga menganggap bahwa setelah para mahasiswa itu kembali ke tanah airnya, mereka menjadi agen Eropa untuk mengubah masyarakatnya.
 
Nggak cuma lewat 'mahasiswa', para pegiat'modernisasi' ini-pun ekspansi dan penetrasi beneran ke tanah jajahan. Tengoklah ketika jaman Belanda dulu orang Jawa tidak ada yang memakai rok. Semua wanita Jawa memakai kain batik (sewek). Tetapi karena ada unsur penetrasi, maka beberapa mulai mengenakan rok, dengan mengesankan bahwa mengenakan rok adalah bangsawan kelas atas.
Di Afrika dahulu kala kaum lelaki menunggang kuda dan demikian bangga dengan kudanya, namun kini mereka bangga dengan mengendarai mobil. Mungkin sampai sini pikiran Ali Syariati bisa dinilai terlalu ekstrim dan menggelikan. Lha iya mosok jaman sekarang mau naik kuda ?
 
Tapi ambil makna dari uraian Syariati berikut ini. Syariati muda adalah seorang mahasiswa sosiologi di kampus Eropa-- yang mana pernah hendak direkrut oleh sebuah pabrik mobil. Dalam interview, diuraikan bahwa marketing produk tersebut hendak menjual mobil ke Asia dan Afrika --karena pasar Eropa sudah jenuh. Salah satu caranya adalah mengubah sosio-kultur masyarakat 'terbelakang' tersebut. Dalam konteks modernisasi, maka Asia dan Afrika adalah terbelakang. Diceritakan juga salah satu cara sales kendaraan itu untuk bisa menjual mobilnya ke suku pedalaman di daerah Chad-Afrika adalah dengan memberikan dua mobil untuk diparkir di pintu gerbang rumah kepala suku sebagai ganti kuda elit yang biasa diikat disitu. Lantas dibangun jalan darurat sepanjang delapan kilometer melintas tengah desa di pelosok hutan itu, soalnya memang nggak ada jalan sama sekali. Dan bensin harus dikirim dengan sampan. Seorang sopir didatangkan khusus untuk nyopiri kepala suku hilir mudik beberapa kali dalam sehari. Lama - lama warga kepincut juga. Dengan cara seperti ini, mobil bisa terjual di daerah itu. Sebetulnya itu cuma hal mobil, tetapi yang dahsyat adalah bahwa masyarakat itu sudah berubah. Mereka semula mendewakan kuda, tetapi kini mereka mendewakan mobil --mirip cowboy Amerika yang dulunya gagah dengan kuda dan laso, namun kini mentereng dengan Ford dobel-kabin-nya.
 
Demikian juga dengan kosmetik, pakaian, alat elektronik dan simbol konsumtif --sekaligus simbol modernisasi. Semua itu hendak di-'jual' ke Asia dan Afrika dengan cara mengubah keinginan masyarakatnya. Bila dulu pengen pergi naik kuda, bagaimana caranya supaya mereka jadi pengen naik mobil ? Bila mereka dulu menghiasi wajahnya dengan getah karet, bagaimana caranya agar mereka mau memakai Christian Dior dibubuhkan ke pipinya ? Apabila dulu orang mengenakan sarung, bagaimana caranya supaya mau menjajal celana jeans ?
Fenomena masuknya jeans berarti menggusur sarung. Sarung yang berpola khas daerah akan hilang beserta alat tenunnya, musnah. Seperti mozaik Astec, seperti kaligrafi Arab, seperti relief candi Borobudur, pola sarung adalah hasil budaya. Artinya, sebagian peradaban dan budaya masyarakat tersebut ikut musnah bersamaan dengan dicampakkannya sang sarung tadi. Ini adalah pertanda keretakan budaya.
 
Menurut Syari'ati, semakin modern masyarakat, belum tentu menjadi semakin beradab. Karena ada bukti peradaban yang  luhung / tinggi --jaman dulu-- tetapi tidak membutuhkan Renault,  tidak butuh Christian Dior, dan alat elektronik juga nggak ada. Contohnya adalah jaman nabi Muhammad, jaman keemasan China, dan sebagainya. Dan menurut Syari'ati lagi, bahkan banyak masyarakat yang makin tidak beradab gara - gara ikut - ikutan mengkonsumsi produk modern dari Eropa tersebut.
Ya, modernisasi memang tidak sama dengan peradaban (madani), karena peradaban lebih menekankan masalah budaya, hukum, ideologi masyarakat, dan tatanan sosial. Sementara modernisasi adalah menekankan penggunaan peralatan dan barang'baru'.
 
Singkatnya, menurut Syari'ati apa yang dilakukan bangsa Eropa adalah mengembangkan pasar, mempromosikan gaya hidup konsumtif untuk menghabiskan produk mereka yang makin bejibun itu. Ke seluruh penjuru alam semesta kalo perlu. Salah satu kampanyenya adalah kampanye 'nilai universalitas' ala Eropa dan Amerika. Maksudnya adalah membuat bangsa non- Eropa menjadi seragam dengan bangsa Eropa --dalam rupa apa-pun seperti bentuk atap rumah, corak pakaian, gaya hidup-- sehingga mereka mengkonsumsi barang yang serupa juga. Dan yang terakhir, Eropa dan Amerika juga kampanye mengenai 'globalisasi dunia', dengan maksud agar seluruh dunia seragam dari sisi apapun termasuk ideologi dan -isme-nya, hukum, tatanan masyarakat, dan kondisi kulturnya  sehingga makin mudah dikendalikan dan menjadi pasar yang mampu menyerap produk mereka. karena  penghalang terbesar ekspansi pasar itu  adalah perbedaan -isme. Contohnya adalah dagangan rok mini musim panas yang demikian laku di Eropa, pasti penjualannya akan terganjal ideologi dan ajaran Islam di Asia.
 
Ah. Terus terang hal tersebut belum pernah saya pikirkan secara detail seperti itu. Sebagai seorang lulusan teknik, saya cukup ciut nyali juga ketika membaca analisa Syari'ati tentang dampak revolusi industri yang demikian getir ini. Namun bagaimana-pun Ali Syari'ati memang selalu memberi saya banyak hal - hal baru.[] haris fauzi - 30 maret 2007
 
 


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Outstanding...

Michael

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